Israeli painter of Ukrainian birth. In 1922 he emigrated to Palestine, attending the Bezalel School of Arts and Design in Jerusalem from 1926 to 1928. After joining the Massad group in Tel Aviv in 1929 he studied in Paris at the Academie de la Grande Chaumire and the Academie Colarossi (1930-31). After helping to found NEW HORIZONS in 1948 he sought a new visual vocabulary in order to free Israeli art from its obsession with local content and form. He avoided narrative and anecdotal elements in favour of pure form and colour. Having fused landscape and abstract form in his early works as a means of moving from realism to abstraction, from 1955 he relegated reality to mere suggestions, basing his compositions on geometric shapes sometimes surrounded by patches of colour. By the 1960s, in works such as Composition (watercolour, 1964; Tel Aviv, Mr and Mrs Israel Zafrir priv. col.), he had become concerned with rhythm as a way of containing balances and tensions, now using patches of colour to express feeling and to give a tangible dimension to abstract shapes.